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The History and Current Situation of Stage Lights

by Newfeel Lighting on Feb 09, 2023

Table of Contents
  • History and current situation of stage lights
  • Classification and characteristics of computer lights
  • The characteristics of the moving head computer light are as follows
  • Fixed computer lights
  • Classified according to the performance of computer lamps
  • Effects and functions of moving stage lights
History and current situation of stage lights
Stage lights only appeared on the TV stage in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At first, in some large-scale outdoor concerts abroad, in order to heighten the atmosphere of the scene, some motor-controlled tube lights (PAR lights) were used to generate light beams that could swing and change colors. In retrospect, this may be the original shape of the computer lamp. As a real computer lamp, it appeared in the middle and late 1980s. With the development of science and technology, especially the rapid development of digital computer technology, moving lights have developed from the original analog era to today's digital era. Today, computer lights have developed into a very large family, and there are at least hundreds of brands.
Conventional lamps: lamps without any mechanics and electronics
Mechanical lamp: add mechanical parts on the basis of the original conventional lamp
Electronic light: (on the basis of mechanical lights, an electronic circuit is added to control the motor to produce effect changes (the electronic circuit uses voice control to trigger the motor)
Analog signal computer light: Add a receiving signal circuit board to the electronic light to control the motor through the signal. This signal was originally an analog signal developed by Martin Company, but this signal is subject to control, use, maintenance, etc. limited.
Digital signal computer lights: replace the receiving analog signal circuit board with receiving digital circuit board. The signal is controlled by the international general standard DMX512 signal, which is characterized by strong signal, multiple control loops, convenience, speed, and stability.
Intelligent network computer lights: 1. Add a stepping motor to the stage lights components, use digital signals to control the motor to adjust the installation angle, and remotely align the light through the computer, generally for the stage lights series
2. A network interface is added on the basis of digital signal scanners to facilitate function upgrades. The upgrade program is generally downloaded from the manufacturer's website and stored in the program IC through network cable transmission.
Digital moving lights: Built-in media server, receiving DMX512 protocol, 170 controllable channels, built-in remote control camera to capture live images, more than 1000 kinds of optimized lighting special pictures, 3D, media files, still images. Future professional lighting will develop from this aspect.
stage light show
The first generation of computer lamps appeared in the 1980s. With the development of mechanical lights and light sources and electronic technology, the first generation of smart lights came out. Early computer lamps can only perform some relatively simple actions, and there are not many colors and patterns that can be changed. In terms of control methods, due to the relatively early development, the control signals of the first generation of lamps have not been unified, and each adopts different control protocols, which has poor versatility. Due to the constraints of electronic technology and the inconsistency of control signals, most of the first-generation computer lights are controlled by the consoles produced by each manufacturer.
In 1987, the National Theater Association of the United States announced and unified the control protocol of moving lights. In 1990, the protocol was revised, which is the DMX512 communication protocol that is still used today. Due to the unification of the control protocol, the computer lamp technology has been further developed. Some manufacturers with strong electronic technology capabilities specialize in the production of lighting consoles, while others with strong processing capabilities specialize in the production of moving lights. With the continuous development of electronic technology, mechanical technology and optical technology, computer lights have entered the second peak of development. The power of the moving head light has also been increased to 1200W, and the horizontal and vertical movement has been developed to 16 bits. In terms of the color changing function, in addition to the color wheel has been developed to the three primary colors, the gobo has also begun to use the glass coating process. We call the moving lights at this stage the second generation moving lights.
In the 21st century, people found that the DMX512 communication protocol has great defects in transmission capacity and transmission methods, such as small transmission data, only one-way transmission, and difficulty in multi-console backup. With the development of the computer and IT industry, network control technology has begun to be applied to the lighting industry. The first choice is that conventional dimming manufacturers have developed the Art-Net network control protocol, so that the lighting control signal can be transmitted in the network, which solves the defect that the DMX512 communication protocol can only be transmitted in one direction. The biggest convenience is that it can carry out two-way data transmission, which is very convenient to detect the working conditions of the lighting equipment and the necessary information feedback. Real network computer lights can not only be controlled by network signals, but also equipped with chips and sensors for monitoring and feedback inside the lights, and software can be upgraded through the network at any time. This kind of lights are the third generation of computers under development today.
stage light show
Of course, one of the most widely used computer lamps shows a vigorous development trend. This type of lamp is called a digital computer lamp. It organically combines the digital display part with computer lamps, and achieves the purpose of changing colors and patterns by performing effect processing on different digital layers, and more showing the visual stimulation effect of the media. Coupled with a media server, thousands of effects can be selected, allowing lighting designers and operators to give full play to their imagination. This type of lighting is also applied to network transmission control technology, and is called the fourth generation of moving lights.
The first generation of computer lamps appeared in the 1980s. With the development of mechanical lights and light sources and electronic technology, the first generation of smart lights came out. Early computer lamps can only perform some relatively simple actions, and there are not many colors and patterns that can be changed. In terms of control methods, due to the relatively early development, the control signals of the first generation of lamps have not been unified, and each adopts different control protocols, which has poor versatility. Due to the constraints of electronic technology and the inconsistency of control signals, most of the first-generation computer lights are controlled by the consoles produced by each manufacturer.
In 1987, the National Theater Association of the United States announced and unified the control protocol of moving lights. In 1990, the protocol was revised, which is the DMX512 communication protocol that is still used today. Due to the unification of the control protocol, the computer lamp technology has been further developed. Some manufacturers with strong electronic technology capabilities specialize in the production of lighting consoles, while others with strong processing capabilities specialize in the production of moving lights. With the continuous development of electronic technology, mechanical technology and optical technology, computer lights have entered the second peak of development. The power of the moving head light has also been increased to 1200W, and the horizontal and vertical movement has been developed to 16 bits. In terms of the color changing function, in addition to the color wheel has been developed to the three primary colors, the gobo has also begun to use the glass coating process. We call the moving lights at this stage the second generation moving lights.
stage light show
In the 21st century, people found that the DMX512 communication protocol has great defects in transmission capacity and transmission methods, such as small transmission data, only one-way transmission, and difficulty in multi-console backup. With the development of the computer and IT industry, network control technology has begun to be applied to the lighting industry. The first choice is that conventional dimming manufacturers have developed the Art-Net network control protocol, so that the lighting control signal can be transmitted in the network, which solves the defect that the DMX512 communication protocol can only be transmitted in one direction. The biggest convenience is that it can carry out two-way data transmission, which is very convenient to detect the working conditions of the lighting equipment and the necessary information feedback. Real network computer lights can not only be controlled by network signals, but also equipped with chips and sensors for monitoring and feedback inside the lights, and software can be upgraded through the network at any time. This kind of lights are the third generation of computers under development today.
Of course, one of the most widely used computer lamps shows a vigorous development trend. This type of lamp is called a digital computer lamp. It organically combines the digital display part with computer lamps, and achieves the purpose of changing colors and patterns by performing effect processing on different digital layers, and more showing the visual stimulation effect of the media. Coupled with a media server, thousands of effects can be selected, allowing lighting designers and operators to give full play to their imagination. This type of lighting is also applied to network transmission control technology, and is called the fourth generation of moving lights.
stage light show
2. Classification and characteristics of computer lights
There are many models and varieties of computer lamps, which can generally be classified according to motion and performance.
1. Classified by sports
(1) Scanning computer lights
Scanning computer lights are also called lens reflection scanning computer lights. Its biggest feature is that a plane mirror is set on the outside of the lens, and the plane lens completes horizontal and vertical movements under the control of two micro-motor degrees of freedom on the X-axis and Y-axis. Change the direction of the projected beam (reflected beam) of the lamp by changing the incident angle of the light. Due to the small mass and small inertia of the plane mirror, the scanning computer light is easy to start, reverse and quickly adjust, and the effect is better than the overall control of the lamp. The advantage is that the light beam can move quickly and be positioned accurately due to the lightness of the lens. The disadvantage is that the scanning angle is limited, and the attenuation of the reflector reaches 5%-10% (such as glass material and coated reflective coating, the reflectivity of light can be increased to 97%)
(2) moving head computer lights
Moving head computer light, also known as light body moving computer light, is an important member of the computer light family. It appeared a little later than scanning computer lights, but it has developed rapidly in recent years and has the tendency to catch up from behind. It relies on a high-power motor to drive the lamp head, and it can rotate in a large range of space in the horizontal and vertical directions. Compared with scanning computer lights, it has greater driving power and can produce stronger beam movement effects.
At present, the moving head computer light has become the mainstream product in the computer light family, and it is used in almost all newly-built TV studios. It can be seen in theaters and entertainment venues. Common moving head computer lights are mostly double-arm type; there are also single-arm type lights, and the power of single-arm moving head computer lights is small, which is often used in dance halls, bars and other places.
The characteristics of the moving head computer light are as follows:
① Large beam scanning angle
② The light beam is directly emitted from the lamp body, and the brightness is 5%-10% higher than that of the scanning computer lamp
③ The lamp head needs to swing, and the motor has a relatively large load.
④ Difficult to dissipate heat
⑤ The lamp body is large in size.
stage light show
(3) Fixed computer lights
Fixed computer lights are fixed at designated locations, and once the angle of the lamp head is fixed, it cannot be changed arbitrarily. Fixed computer lights often only have simple color changes, so they are called color-changing computer lights, or color-changing lights for short. There are two types of color-changing lights: spotlight and soft light, which are distinguished from the diameter of the light outlet of the lamp head; generally, the light outlet is protruding and small in diameter, which is a spotlight color-changing light; the one with a slightly larger diameter is a soft light color-changing light.
2. Classified according to the performance of computer lamps
(1) Washing (WASH) computer lights
Common moving head dyeing computer lights are different from the color-changing lights mentioned above. The reason why it is "stained". It is because the color part of this computer light is composed of three primary colors (CMY) color mixing system. By mixing the three primary colors, an infinite number of colors can theoretically be combined. The lamp head adopts a threaded lens with a large projection angle. This type of computer light has high power and rich colors. It requires the use of an advanced computer console to complete the dyeing function. The main function of the dyeing computer light is to render the color of the performance area or stage.
In addition, there is a type of fixed dyeing computer lamp with higher power, generally above 2KW, and a large projection angle. It is often used to illuminate large buildings or landscapes, and is called the light of the century.
(2) Pattern (SPOT) computer lights
Pattern computer light is the most common type of computer light. Its functions are very powerful, including color change, light and dark change, pattern combination change, pattern rotation change, prism effect change, soft light effect change, aperture shrink change, zoom change, strobe change, etc., can create a variety of Such brilliant and colorful light beams and pattern effects. From the appearance, the outlet diameter of gobo scanners is much smaller than that of wash scanners, so they can be easily distinguished. The reason why it is called gobo scanner is because this type of scanner has 1~3 groups of gobo wheels that other types of scanners do not have. Through the combination of gobo wheels, various pattern effects can be changed. In terms of design, the gobos of gobo scanners can be easily and quickly replaced. At present, many manufacturers of computer lamps can provide the business of customizing gobos according to requirements.
The color part of the pattern computer light is composed of three primary colors (CYM) or a color wheel, and its color film is made of glass-coated filter material with high temperature resistance and high light transmittance, so that the beam brightness projected by the computer light is very high. pure. Usually, three primary colors (CYM) or two sets of color wheels are used to mix colors to achieve the purpose of multiple colors.
(3) Imaging computer light (ellipsoidal)
Imaging scanner is a relatively rare scanner, and its appearance is the same as that of moving head pattern scanner. In addition to the main functions of the pattern computer light, the biggest difference is that it combines the traditional imaging light with the modern computer light technology, and produces various geometric figures through the motor to control the change of the corner cutting piece. Generally, it is used as positioning light for various characters or scenes on the stage. In some cases, imaging computer lights can produce amazing effects.
stage light show
Effects and functions of moving stage lights
The effects of moving stage lights usually include static pattern effect, dynamic pattern effect, pattern combination effect, pattern color enhancement effect, pattern three-dimensional dynamic effect, color temperature correction, beam angle change effect, linear CYM color mixing effect, linear focusing effect, linear dimming effect , prism and soft light effects, omnidirectional movement effects, and more.
The functions of the computer light usually include bulb power trigger, bulb DMX512 signal trigger, and bulb control channel trigger; a temperature controller is installed inside the lamp body, and when the temperature is higher than the temperature set by the temperature controller, it will automatically shut down to protect the internal structure from damage ;Built-in timer, which can display the lamp usage time; energy-saving mode, by closing the shutter, the power consumption of the lamp can be automatically reduced by 50%; off-grid operation menu, all parameters of the menu can be set without connecting the power supply; at the same time, it has a fault diagnosis program , Fan automatic speed control system, XY axis automatic return system, etc.
3. The structure and function of computer lights
1. The structure of computer lights
The structure of the moving head light is composed of optical system, mechanical system, electrical system, etc. Figure 3-1 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the moving head light. From the figure, the structural relationship of the light can be clearly seen.
①Optical system: Imaging system composed of multiple sets of high-precision, high-quality multi-coated lenses (high light transmission rate, high temperature resistance of 300°C-400°C). Computer lights usually use gas discharge light sources, such as HMI, MTI, MSD, HMD, etc., adopt infrared-transparent coating cold light multi-mirror reflective bowl and combined lens group. Figure 3-2 is the optical system diagram of a computer light. The lens combination produces light imaging, and moving the zoom and focus lenses can adjust the size of the light spot and its virtual reality.
②Mechanical system: Various changing functions of computer lights are realized by using stepping motors to drive corresponding mechanical devices and optical components. Some use gear drives, some use belt drives, and some use electric motors for direct drive (see Figure 3-3). The mechanical system requirements of computer lamps are relatively high. High-temperature resistant lubricating oil must be used in the main transmission parts to prevent short-term wear of components. Under high temperature and long-term use, it is necessary to ensure reliable operation of the system and ensure the accuracy of positioning, and various components must have High temperature performance.
③Electrical system: The mechanical actions of computer lights are completed by stepping motors, and each stepping motor needs a control circuit to realize micro-step or step control. There are usually one or more control circuit boards in the computer light, and the single-chip microcomputer on the circuit board is responsible for receiving the DMX512 signal from the console, processing and processing the received data and sending it to the drive circuit board of the stepping motor, which is controlled by the stepping motor. The motor performs the corresponding action. Some computer lamps use a separate stepping motor drive circuit board, and some computer lamps use a single circuit board for the stepping motor drive circuit and the single-chip microcomputer control circuit. Computer lamps usually use gas discharge light source, gas discharge light source needs a trigger circuit and ballast, in addition to the traditional magnetic ballast, there are also electronic ballasts, so the electrical system of the computer lamp can be divided into light source electrical parts and control section.
The stepping motor is the main part of the computer light, it is a special motor, it is very different from the ordinary motor, whether it is a direct current or an alternating current, the ordinary motor rotates when it is powered on, and stops when it is powered off, so it cannot be accurately Positioning; as the name implies, a stepper motor is a motor that can advance step by step. Every time a pulse current is input, its rotor can rotate a small angle, which is the step angle of the stepper motor. Therefore, by sending appropriate electric pulses to the stepping motor, it can rotate the required angle according to the requirements of the control. The minimum step angle of a stepping motor can reach a few tenths of a degree. According to the structure of the stepping motor, there are two phases, three phases, four phases, and five phases. Computer lights generally use two-phase or three-phase motors. The shape of the stepping motor commonly used in computer lights is shown in Figure 3-5.
stage light show
2. Functional components of computer lights
A moving light is usually composed of multiple functional components such as light source, pattern, color, and zoom. The Chinese and English names and meanings of these components are as follows:
① Light source: It is composed of gas discharge bulbs, lamp holders, reflectors, transformer circuit systems and heat dissipation systems, providing the main light source for lamps.
② Gobo: There are usually 1 to 3 groups of gobo turntables, each of which is equipped with 4 to 9 metal or glass gobo pieces, and the pattern changes are driven by a micro-stepping motor. The pattern plates overlap each other to produce dozens or even hundreds of different pattern effects.
③ Colour: The color changing function of the computer light is very powerful, and the color changing can be divided into two ways: 1. The color wheel can be changed by leaps and bounds, which can change the effect of full color or half color.
2. The color wheel changes linearly, and each color chip can be linearly faded. Usually there are 1 or 2 sets of color turntables, and each turntable is equipped with 4 to 9 color chips, and each color chip is made of glass coating material, which has extremely high temperature resistance and light transmittance. The color is changed by the micro-stepping motor, and the color chip can also be replaced if necessary.
The CMY color mixing system has two structures, one adopts a disc structure and the other adopts a comb structure. They all use three complementary colors of cyan (cyan), Yellow (yellow), and Magenta (magenta) to mix colors using the principle of subtractive color method. , so as to obtain a linear and smooth color transition, which can transition from one color to another very naturally, without the feeling of jumping or sudden change like when the color wheel changes color.
④ Zoom (zoom): Similar to the aperture in a camera, it is mainly used to adjust the size of the beam spot.
⑤ Dimming (dimmer): There is a set of special shading devices inside the lamp body, and the brightness of the beam is controlled by adjusting the size of the shading surface to achieve light and dark changes in light.
⑥ Focus: Use a group of convex lenses to move forward and backward by controlling the motor. At this time, the patterns in the light beam will appear flickering, flickering, and flickering.
⑦ Prism (prism): There is a set of prism discs in the front of the lamp, generally 2 to 4 prisms can be installed, and different prisms can be changed by controlling the motor to increase the beam effect, from the original 1 beam of light to 8. beams, 24 beams or 40 beams.
⑧ Stribe: The strobe effect can be achieved by using the shading sheet to move it left and right by controlling the motor. The speed of the shading sheet movement can be controlled and adjusted according to the needs of the speed.
⑨ Horizontal (pan) and vertical (til) scanning: Horizontal and vertical are also called XY axes. The X axis of the moving head computer light can reach 360 degrees to 540 degrees, and the Y axis can reach a wide range of scanning motions from 200 degrees to 270 degrees. Scanning lights have limitations, so the scanning range is relatively small, but the scanning speed is several times faster than moving head scanning lights.
Note: relying on the scanner itself alone, whether it is one scanner or multiple scanners connected in the "master" and "slave" mode, the effect can only complete "self-test" and some simple performance actions of several preset programs , far from being able to give full play to the rich functions of computer lights. In order to make the computer lights complete various complex performance actions according to the programming and control of the lighting engineer, it is necessary to connect several computer lights to the computer light console to form a "computer light control system" and put it into operation, so as to maximize the performance Give full play to the various advanced performance functions of computer lights.
4. Functions, characteristics and applications of traditional stage lights
The following lists some commonly used traditional stage lamps, describing their names, structures, functions, characteristics and applications.
1. Astigmatism light
Astigmatism light (also known as flood light, flood light) adopts an asymmetrical reflector - a spoon-shaped reflective surface, which is a direct and reflective lamp that can produce uniform diffuse reflection light. Equipped with 220V/1250W or 1000W tube-shaped tungsten-halogen lamp, the color temperature is 3000K~3200K.
The superimposition of the direct light and reflected light of the astigmatism light source constitutes the projected light of the lamp, which has high lighting efficiency, large lighting range and uniform illumination.
Astigmatism lights are mainly suitable for uniform lighting of large areas such as sky curtains and large scenes. It is the best light type for the sky row and the ground row. Canopy astigmatism light adopts asymmetrical reflector, which better solves the problem of excessive disparity of illumination on the illuminated surface, middle and lower part caused by the asymmetry between the hanging or placing position of the lamp and the illuminated surface.
stage light show
2. Back light
The back light is a reflective lamp equipped with a spherical or parabolic reflector, and a shading ring is added in front of the bulb to cut off the direct light. It can be divided into two types: stage back light and film and television back light.
Back light has high luminous efficacy, and the effective shooting distance is farther than that of spotlight. It is mainly suitable for surface light, ear light, side light and backlight. There is a knob on the rear of the light source to adjust the spot size.
3. Tube lights and beam lights
The tube lamp is also a reflective lamp, and its optical structure is basically the same as that of the back light, as shown in Figure 4-4. The light reflector of the tube light also uses a parabolic reflector, but its light aperture and mirror depth are smaller than those of the back light, and it has a larger angle of inclusion to the light source. The early tube light source used finger-shaped quartz lamps, and there were several varieties of 220V/750W, 1000W and 55V/500W.
The new type of tube light is called beam light or PAR light, which is composed of PAR light source and sleeve (often called PAR tube). The PAR light source adopts a closed-shaped halogen bulb with a trinity of parabolic reflector + illuminant + special lens, which can project a beam angle of 5°-40° with a clear spot. PAR lamps include translucent (concentrating) CP60, soft light CP61 and astigmatic (wide beam) CP62 and other models.
PAR lights are simple in structure, easy to use, can produce a strong beam effect, and can be molded with the help of smoke in the stage space.
Light and shadow shapes such as light columns, light walls, and light curtains are often used as backlighting on the stage, and are more widely used in dance halls.
stage light show
4. Auditorium effect lights
Auditorium effect lights are installed in the studio or outdoor performance stage to project a large area to the auditorium in the middle or on both sides, and turn on when necessary to create the lighting effect of the auditorium. Composed of 4 or 8 PAR36 lamps.
5. Threaded (lens) spotlights
Threaded lens spotlights are referred to as threaded spotlights or Fresnel spotlights for short. Threaded lenses (Fresnel lenses) are used to achieve a more uniform light distribution of transmitted light and blurred spot outlines. Therefore, threaded spotlights are also called soft lights, which are suitable for lighting and lighting occasions that require both spotlight and soft light. The shape of the threaded spotlight.
stage light show
6. Imaging lamp
The imaging lamp adopts the finger-shaped quartz lamp light source and the deep ellipsoidal reflector to concentrate the light. There are 4 diaphragm inserts inside the lamp, which can be pushed, pulled or rotated within a certain range to change the shape of the projected light spot, and various geometric figures can be combined at will. It can be inserted into the shape gobo required for the performance, so it is also called contour spotlight, modeling light, etc., and the shape of the imaging light.
7. Tricolor soft light
For the lighting of various conference halls (rooms) podiums (stages) and the lighting of small and medium-sized studios of TV stations, if the layout of general theater stage lights is followed, a large number of high-power halogen tungsten lamps are used as surface light, side light, especially top light The temperature of the lighting is very high, so that the leaders and speakers sitting on the podium during the meeting, as well as the hosts and guests of the TV station, have to bear the torment of high temperature for a long time, which is very uncomfortable. In recent years, three-color soft light (fluorescent light) has been widely used as top light, which is hoisted above the stage (podium or studio). Because it is a gas discharge that emits light and has very little heat, it is called a cold light source, and its illuminance, color temperature, color rendering index and other indicators can meet the requirements of conference podium lighting and studio shooting TV. There are many kinds of tri-color soft lights, usually with 2, 4 or 6 tri-color fluorescent tubes with a power of 36W or 55W. They are installed side by side in a rectangular metal lamp panel, and four light-blocking sheets with adjustable angles are installed at the opening of the lamp panel. The shape of the three-color soft light.
stage light show
8. Orientation, rotation and scanning lamps
① Directional lamps: This type of lamps is characterized by fixing the irradiation direction of the lamps in a certain area, and under the control of switches, running lights or simple consoles, the lamps can take turns to emit light or change the intensity of light according to a certain rule. , so as to form a certain lighting effect.
② Rotating lamps: This type of lamps mainly relies on the motor to drive the whole or part of the lamps, and rotates along a fixed track to produce colorful lighting effects. Its main feature is its strong dynamic effect, which is suitable for creating a warm and unrestrained whole scene effect; there are fixed type, separate control type and so on.
③Scanning lamps: These lamps are generally composed of one or more small spotlights, which can emit multiple beams. Each small spotlight can rotate synchronously to produce multiple rotating and changing beams of light. The scanning angle is generally 90°~180° °, commonly used are single-head, four-head and sixteen-head scanning lights, which can create an unpredictable special atmosphere for dance halls.
4. Functions, characteristics and applications of traditional stage lights
The following lists some commonly used traditional stage lamps, describing their names, structures, functions, characteristics and applications.
1. Astigmatism light
Astigmatism light (also known as flood light, flood light) adopts an asymmetrical reflector - a spoon-shaped reflective surface, which is a direct and reflective lamp that can produce uniform diffuse reflection light. Equipped with 220V/1250W or 1000W tube-shaped tungsten-halogen lamp, the color temperature is 3000K~3200K.
The superimposition of the direct light and reflected light of the astigmatism light source constitutes the projected light of the lamp, which has high lighting efficiency, large lighting range and uniform illumination.
Astigmatism lights are mainly suitable for uniform lighting of large areas such as sky curtains and large scenes. It is the best light type for the sky row and the ground row. Canopy astigmatism light adopts asymmetrical reflector, which better solves the problem of excessive disparity of illumination on the illuminated surface, middle and lower part caused by the asymmetry between the hanging or placing position of the lamp and the illuminated surface.
stage light show
2. Back light
The back light is a reflective lamp equipped with a spherical or parabolic reflector, and a shading ring is added in front of the bulb to cut off the direct light. It can be divided into two types: stage back light and film and television back light.
Back light has high luminous efficacy, and the effective shooting distance is farther than that of spotlight. It is mainly suitable for surface light, ear light, side light and backlight. There is a knob on the rear of the light source to adjust the spot size.
3. Tube lights and beam lights
The tube lamp is also a reflective lamp, and its optical structure is basically the same as that of the back light, as shown in Figure 4-4. The light reflector of the tube light also uses a parabolic reflector, but its light aperture and mirror depth are smaller than those of the back light, and it has a larger angle of inclusion to the light source. The early tube light source used finger-shaped quartz lamps, and there were several varieties of 220V/750W, 1000W and 55V/500W.
The new type of tube light is called beam light or PAR light, which is composed of PAR light source and sleeve (often called PAR tube). The PAR light source adopts a closed-shaped halogen bulb with a trinity of parabolic reflector + illuminant + special lens, which can project a beam angle of 5°-40° with a clear spot. PAR lamps include translucent (concentrating) CP60, soft light CP61 and astigmatic (wide beam) CP62 and other models.
PAR lights are simple in structure, easy to use, can produce a strong beam effect, and can be molded with the help of smoke in the stage space.
Light and shadow shapes such as light columns, light walls, and light curtains are often used as backlighting on the stage, and are more widely used in dance halls.
stage light show
4. Auditorium effect lights
Auditorium effect lights are installed in the studio or outdoor performance stage to project a large area to the auditorium in the middle or on both sides, and turn on when necessary to create the lighting effect of the auditorium. Composed of 4 or 8 PAR36 lamps.
5. Threaded (lens) spotlights
Threaded lens spotlights are referred to as threaded spotlights or Fresnel spotlights for short. Threaded lenses (Fresnel lenses) are used to achieve a more uniform light distribution of transmitted light and blurred spot outlines. Therefore, threaded spotlights are also called soft lights, which are suitable for lighting and lighting occasions that require both spotlight and soft light. The shape of the threaded spotlight.
stage light show
6. Imaging lam
The imaging lamp adopts the finger-shaped quartz lamp light source and the deep ellipsoidal reflector to concentrate the light. There are 4 diaphragm inserts inside the lamp, which can be pushed, pulled or rotated within a certain range to change the shape of the projected light spot, and various geometric figures can be combined at will. It can be inserted into the shape gobo required for the performance, so it is also called contour spotlight, modeling light, etc., and the shape of the imaging light.
7. Tricolor soft light
For the lighting of various conference halls (rooms) podiums (stages) and the lighting of small and medium-sized studios of TV stations, if the layout of general theater stage lights is followed, a large number of high-power halogen tungsten lamps are used as surface light, side light, especially top light The temperature of the lighting is very high, so that the leaders and speakers sitting on the podium during the meeting, as well as the hosts and guests of the TV station, have to bear the torment of high temperature for a long time, which is very uncomfortable. In recent years, three-color soft light (fluorescent light) has been widely used as top light, which is hoisted above the stage (podium or studio). Because it is a gas discharge that emits light and has very little heat, it is called a cold light source, and its illuminance, color temperature, color rendering index and other indicators can meet the requirements of conference podium lighting and studio shooting TV. There are many kinds of tri-color soft lights, usually with 2, 4 or 6 tri-color fluorescent tubes with a power of 36W or 55W. They are installed side by side in a rectangular metal lamp panel, and four light-blocking sheets with adjustable angles are installed at the opening of the lamp panel. The shape of the three-color soft light.
stage light show
8. Orientation, rotation and scanning lamps
① Directional lamps: This type of lamps is characterized by fixing the irradiation direction of the lamps in a certain area, and under the control of switches, running lights or simple consoles, the lamps can take turns to emit light or change the intensity of light according to a certain rule. , so as to form a certain lighting effect.
② Rotating lamps: This type of lamps mainly relies on the motor to drive the whole or part of the lamps, and rotates along a fixed track to produce colorful lighting effects. Its main feature is its strong dynamic effect, which is suitable for creating a warm and unrestrained whole scene effect; there are fixed type, separate control type and so on.
③Scanning lamps: These lamps are generally composed of one or more small spotlights, which can emit multiple beams. Each small spotlight can rotate synchronously to produce multiple rotating and changing beams of light. The scanning angle is generally 90°~180° °, commonly used are single-head, four-head and sixteen-head scanning lights, which can create an unpredictable special atmosphere for dance halls.
5. Characteristics of electric light source for professional lamps and lanterns
Classification of electric light source
Metal halide lamps are referred to as metal halide lamps, discharge bulbs, gas bubbles, etc. According to the structure, metal halide lamps can be divided into single-glass double-ended type, double-glass double-ended type, and double-glass single-ended type
The working circuit of the metal halide lamp also needs to use a ballast. The open circuit voltage of the magnetic ballast is not enough to drive the metal halide lamp, so an external starter is required. When the lamp is extinguished, because the air pressure inside the lamp is too high, it cannot be restarted immediately under the action of the original starting voltage, and it can only be restarted after 5 to 20 minutes. If it is required that the lamp can be restarted immediately after it is extinguished, a starter that can generate high voltage is required, which is what we call a hot start.
The development of the metal halide lamp is still a new light source that is constantly improving, constantly improving, and constantly introducing new products. Because there are many kinds of metal halide lamps, and the product names of various manufacturers are not unified.
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